The Border / La Frontera

 

The Border La Frontera

“We Didn’t Cross the Border. The Border Crossed Us. No Cruzamos la Frontera. La Frontera nos Cruzaba.” Map by Jordan Engel.

For the native nations living along the US-Mexico border, the border is a barbed wire fence through their living room. Over the course of generations, they’ve formed connections on both sides of the border, and yet they’re considered foreigners and illegal immigrants in their ancestral homelands. In the O’odham language, there is no word for “state citizenship.” No human being is illegal.

In this map, the territories of the Kumeyaay, Cocopah, Quechan, Tohono O’odham, Yaqui, Tigua, and Kickapoo are shown straddling the 2,000 mile border, with the red dots along the border representing official border crossings.

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Para los pueblos indígenas que viven por la frontera entre los Estados Unidos y México, la frontera es una pared en medio de su sala. Por generaciones, han formado conexiones en los dos lados de la frontera, y sin embargo se los consideran extranjeros y inmigrantes ilegales en su propia patria. En la lengua O’odham, no hay una palabra para “ciudadanía estatal”. Ningún ser humano es ilegal.

En este mapa, los puntos rojos representan los cruces fronterizos oficiales. Muestra los territorios de los Kumiai, Cucapá, Quechan, Tohono O’odham, Yaqui, Tigua, y Kikapú.

Kurdistan in Kurdish

Kurdistan Map

Kurdistan is a roughly defined geo-cultural region wherein the Kurdish people form a prominent majority population. With a population of about 32 million, Kurds are the world’s largest nation without a state. They are spread across 8 countries, where the Kurds have often fought for greater recognition of their rights. At present, Kurds are largely exercising political autonomy in Rojava (Syrian Kurdistan) and Başûrê Kurdistanê (Iraqi Kurdistan) while continuing to battle the Islamic State.

Below is a list of place names found on this map.

English Kurdî (Kurdish)
Al-Hasakah, Syria Hesîçe
Aleppo, Syria Heleb
Ankara, Turkey Enqere
Arak, Iran Erak
Ashgabat, Turkmenistan Aşgabat
Baghdad, Iraq Bexda
Batman, Turkey Êlih
Bitlis, Turkey Bidlîs
Diyarbakır, Turkey Amed
Dohuk, Iraq Dihok
Erbil, Iraq Hewlêr
Erzurum, Turkey Erzîrom
Gaziantep, Turkey Dîlok
Kahramanmaraş, Turkey Gurgum
Kars, Turkey Qers
Kermanshah, Iran Kirmaşan
Khorramabad, Iran Xurramawe
Kirkuk, Iraq Kerkûk
Malatya, Turkey Meletî
Mardin, Turkey Mêrdîn
Mashhad, Iran Meşhed
Mosul, Iraq Mûsil
Muş, Turkey Mûş
Sanandaj, Iran Sine
Şanlıurfa, Turkey Riha
Siirt, Turkey Sêrt
Sivas, Turkey Sêwas
Sulaymaniyah, Iraq Silêmanî
Tabriz, Iran Tewrêz
Tehran, Iran Tehran
Urmia, Iran Ûrmiye
Van, Turkey Wan
Yerevan, Armenia Êrîvan
Mount Ararat Çiyayê Agirî
Armenia Ermenistan
Azerbaijan Azerbaycan
Georgia Gurcistan
Iran Îran
Iraq Îraq
Kurdistan Kurdistan
Syria Sûrî
Turkey Tirkiye
Turkmenistan Tirkmenistan
Black Sea Deryaya Reş
Caspian Sea Deryaya Qezwînê
Euphrates River Firat
Lake Urmia Gola Ûrmiyeyê
Lake Van Gola Wanê
Mediterranean Sea Deryaya Navîn
Persian Gulf Kendava Farsê
Tigris River Dîcle

 

Lakota Territory

lakota-country

This map shows Lakota Territory as defined by the 1851 Treaty of Fort Laramie between the United States government and the Lakota in relation to the rest of North America, or Khéya Wíta, meaning “Turtle Island” in Lakota.

Khéya Wíta – North America (Turtle Island)
Osní Makȟóčhe – Alaska (Cold Land)
Uŋčíyapi Makȟóčhe – Canada (Grandmother’s [Queen Victoria’s] Land)
Lakȟóta Makȟóčhe – Lakota Country (Lakota’s Land)
Mílahaŋska Tȟamákȟočhe‎ – The United States of America (Long Knives’ Land)
Spaóla Makȟóčhe‎ – Mexico (Mexican’s Land)
Tȟuŋkášila Othí – Washington DC (Grandfather [The President] Dwelling)
Spaóla Otȟúŋwahe – Mexico City (Mexican’s City)

* Note on the compass – South is oriented at the top, a Lakota custom according to Dakȟóta Tȟaté from the Standing Rock Reservation. In this medicine wheel, North is represented as white. This is how Darrell Red Cloud, an Oglala Lakota friend of mine, designates the colors on the wheel, but he says that other medicine men may do it differently.

Map by Jordan Engel

Dakota Access Pipeline Indigenous Protest Map

Dakota Access Pipeline.jpg

The Dakota Access Pipeline is a 1,134 mile long crude oil pipeline currently under construction from North Dakota to Illinois. Lakota and Dakota activists have established the Sacred Stone Camp in the path of the pipeline to halt its construction, drawing thousands of supporters from tribes across the continent.

This map shows the area around the Sacred Stone Camp with the proposed pipeline route, labelled with Lakota/Dakota place names and oriented to the South.

Map by Jordan Engel with assistance by Dakota Wind, thefirstscout.blogspot.com.

Íŋyaŋwakağapi Wakpá – Cannonball River “Stone-Make-For-Themselves River.”
Íŋyaŋ Wakháŋagapi Othí – Sacred Stone Camp / Cannon Ball, North Dakota
“Sacred Stone Camp.”
Íŋyaŋ Woslál Háŋ – Standing Rock Reservation.
Mníšoše – Missouri River “Turbulent Water.”
Pȟá Šuŋg Wakpána – Horsehead Creek “Horse Head Creek.”
Zuzéča Sápa – Dakota Access Pipeline “Black Snake.”

World Map in Cherokee

 

CherokeeWorldMap
ᎡᎶᎯ (Earth) in ᏣᎳᎩ (Cherokee), by Jordan Engel

ᏓᎶᏂᎦᏍᏛ – Asia
ᎬᎿᎦᏍᏛ – Africa
ᏧᏴᏢ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ – North America
ᏧᎦᎾᏮ ᎠᎹᏰᏟ – South America
ᏧᏁᏍᏓᎸ – Antarctica
ᏳᎳᏛ – Europe
ᎡᎳᏗᏜ – Australia
ᎢᏤᎢᏳᏍᏗ ᎦᏙᎯ – Greenland
ᏭᏕᎵᏴ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ – Pacific Ocean
ᏗᎧᎸᎬ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ – Atlantic Ocean
ᎠᏴᏫᏯ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ – Indian Ocean
ᎤᎦᎾᏭ ᎢᏗᏢ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ – Southern Ocean
ᏧᏴᏢ ᎠᎺᏉᎯ.- Arctic Ocean

East African Ground Maps

Sabatele's Map of the Main Caravan Routes in East Africa

Sabatele’s map of the main caravan routes in East Africa. Paper and pencil. This map with its southerly orientation traces the main caravan routes across Tanzania, with the terminus points placed at Dar es Salaam. Size of the original: unknown. Current location: unknown. Photograph courtesy of the Archiv Museum fur Volkerkunde za Leipzig (Neg. Af 0 1428; from the originial glass plate negative).

The scene of Africans drawing ground maps to the profound surprise of Europeans is a recurring theme of the exploration literature. The German geographer Karl Weule was “overwhelmed” by the number of maps members of his caravan produced during a six-month research expedition through German East Africa in 1906. Between marches, he supplied his carriers with paper and pencils to see what they would draw. This is the map made by a Mambwe man named Sabatele, originally from the southern shore of Lake Tanganyika near the present Tanzania-Zambia border. The map, which traces caravan routes across Tanzania, was made in Lindi at the very beginning of Weule’s expedition. Weule notes that Sabatele’s map was oriented with south at the top, but he turned it around 180 degrees “in order to bring it into agreement with our maps.”

Source: The History of Cartography, Volume 2, Book 3: Cartography in Prehistoric, Ancient, and Medieval Europe and the Mediterranean. Edited by David Woodward and G. Malcolm Lewis ©1998

Locations on this map:
1. “Mawopanda,” Dar es Salaam
2. “Lufu,” the Ruvu River, a large river frequently crossed on the main caravan road by Wanyamwezi carriers, one of whom created this map
3. “Mulokolo,” Morogoro, the terminus for the central railway at the time
4. “Mgata,” Makata, plain between the Uluguru and Rubeho mountains, a swamp during the rainy season
5. “Kirosa,” Kilosa
6. “Balabala,” the caravan road
7. “Mwapwa,” Mpwapwa, the old caravan center, once the last stop on the inland march before the great alkali desert, Marenga Mkali, and hostile Ogogo
8. Mutiwe, a stream near Kilimatinde
9. Kilimatinde, a mountain
10. Kasanga
11. Kondoa-Irangi
12. Post of Kalama, in Iramba (Mkalama?)
13a. “Tobola,” Tabora, with the new boma (enclosure/fort)
13b. “Tobola ya zamani,” Old Tabora with the former boma
14. Ujiji on Lake Tanganyika
15. Mwanza on Lake Victoria