Extinct languages are ones which no longer have any speakers. The languages included in this map are one which have presumably gone extinct since the 1950s.
It is estimated that, if nothing is done, half of 6000 plus languages spoken today will disappear by the end of this century. With the disappearance of unwritten and undocumented languages, humanity would lose not only a cultural wealth but also important ancestral knowledge embedded, in particular, in indigenous languages.
While language extinction is a global phenomenon, the largest concentration of recently extinct languages in the world is on the West Coast of the United States – California (22 extinct languages), Oregon (9), and Washington (7).
Source: UNESCO Interactive Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger
Some (But Not All) Settler Massacres of Indigenous Peoples in the United States.
Map by Jordan Engel.
“…it began to come clear to me why so often we do not commemorate the slaughters of indigenous peoples: There are too many sites from too many massacres, and to commemorate them all – even with an action so simple as that of a Catholic who reflexively makes the sign of the cross each time she encounters a cemetery – would afford little time for us to enjoy the comforts and elegancies civilization affords. I would wager every county in the United States has hosted at least one massacre, recorded or forgotten.”
– Derrick Jensen, The Culture of Make Believe
Wazí Aháŋhaŋ Oyáŋke (The Pine Ridge Reservation) in Lakȟótiyapi (Lakota).
Map by Jordan Engel
Lakota place name – English place name (Translation)
Bló Wakpála – Potato Creek (Potato Creek)
Čaŋkpé Opí – Wounded Knee (Wounded Knee)
Čaŋkpé Opí Wakpála – Wounded Knee Creek (Wounded Knee Creek)
Čhaŋnúŋpa Sápa Wakpála – Black Pipe Creek (Black Pipe Creek)
Čhasmú Makȟóčhe – The Sand Hills (Sand Country)
Hokhíyoȟloka Wakpála – Pass Creek
Íŋyaŋ Šála – Batesland (Red Stone)
Makȟásaŋ – Whiteclay (Whiteish or Yellowish Clay)
Makȟásaŋ Wakpála – Whiteclay Creek (Whiteish or Yellowish Clay Creek)
Makhízita Čík’ala – Little White River
Makhízita Wakpá – White River
Makȟóšiča – The Badlands (Bad Land)
Makȟóšiča Otȟúŋwahe – Interior (Bad Land Village)
Matȟó Wakpála – Bear-In-The-Lodge Creek (Bear Creek)
Oglála – Oglala (To Scatter One’s Own)
Ógle Šá – Red Shirt (Red Shirt) (Also known as Ógle Lúta)
Oyúȟpe – Manderson (The name of a band of the Oglala)
Pahá Zípela – Slim Butte (Thin Butte)
Pažóla Otȟúŋwahe – Martin (Knoll City)
Pȟahíŋ Pahá – Porcupine Butte (Porcupine Butte)
Pȟahíŋ Siŋté – Porcupine (Young Porcupine)
Pȟahíŋ Siŋté Wakpála – Porcupine Creek (Young Porcupine Creek)
Phežúta Ȟaká – Kyle (Branched Medicine)
Phežúta Ȟaká Wakpála – Medicine Root Creek (Branched Medicine Creek)
Wagmíza Wakpála – Allen (Corn Creek)
Wakpá Wašté – Cheyenne River (Good River)
Waŋblí Hoȟpi – Wanblee (Eagle Nest)
Waŋblí Hoȟpi Pahá – Eagle Butte (Eagle Nest Butte)
Waŋblí Hoȟpi Wakpála – Eagle Nest Creek (Eagle Nest Creek)
Wazí Aháŋhaŋ Oyáŋke – The Pine Ridge Reservation
Wazíbló – Pine Ridge
Denmark (2004) by Asmund Havsteen-Mikkelsen and Inuk Silis Hoegh
“As part of my joint project Melting Barricades (2004-2005) with Inuk Silis Høegh I conceived the idea for the map of Denmark on the way to Kangerlussuaq looking at an in-flight magazine from Air Greenland. From the plane you could see all the beautiful glaciers with Danish royal names. What if Greenland did the same in Denmark, but with ice and new names? It was a sarcastic comment to the good and bad sides of the colonial era, but also to the ”big brother” Denmark, who were warring in Afghanistan. The map of Denmark has been exhibited various places and appeared in many different contexts – having a direct appeal to many people. In 2012 it was used as a stamp by Post Greenland, and most recently (2014) I printed it on a t-shirt.”
– Asmund Havsteen-Mikkelsen
Predominant Pre-Contact Housing Types in North America.