The Rockies: An Arapaho Perspective

How the Lands are Named in Arapaho. Research by the Arapaho Project at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Map by Jordan Engel.
Heeneisih’iinou’u biito’owuu (How the Lands are Named) in Hinono’eitiit (Arapaho). Research from the Arapaho Project at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Map by Jordan Engel.

Hinono’eino (Arapaho) knowledge of the land extends far and wide across the Great Plains, Rocky Mountains, and beyond. This map covers the modern states of Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nebraska, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. A big thanks to Dr. Andrew Cowell and all the folks who have helped with the Arapaho Project at the University of Colorado. More information, and an interactive Arapaho Place Name Map, can be found here: .

List of place names appearing on this map. Hinono’eitiit place name – English place name / “Translation into English”

3ooxone’ – Medicine Bow Mountains / “At the (woman’s stone) hammer”

3ooxone’ Noho’oooyoo’ – Rocky Mountains / “The hammer mountain range”

3iikoneiniicie – Green River, WY / “Skeleton river”

Beesniicie – Yellowstone River / “Big river”

Bei’i’einiicie – Casper, WY / “Shell river”

Bei’i’einiicie – North Platte River / “Shell river”

Benehtiiteen – Fort Hall, ID / “All may enter”

Beniiino’oowu’ – Fort Laramie, WY / “Soldiers house”

Biinohooo – Hardin, MT / “Digging stick”

Ce’i3eeniicie – Powder River / “Powder river”

Heni’eino’oowu’ – Cody, WY / “Long hair’s (Bufflo Bill’s) house”

Heetihco’oo’ – Yellowstone Area / “Where it (water or land) rises up”

Heetko’einoo’ – Estes Park, CO / “Where it is circular”

Heeyotoyoo’ – Pikes Peak / “Long mountain”

Heneeceibooo – Laramie Plains / “Buffalo trail”

Heso’oobooone’ – Rawlins, WY / “At the railroad”

Hii3einoon Niitbii3ihi3i’ Hoh’eni’ – Boulder, CO / “Buffalos where they graze on the mountain”

Hitesiino’oowu’ – Cheyenne, WY / “Cheyenne (tribe) house”

Hiwoxuu Hinii3oon – Chimney Rock / “Elks penis”

Hiwoxuu Hookuhu’ee – Collegiate Range and Mount Massive / “Elks head”

Ho’nookeenooxebine’ – Rock Springs, WY / “At the rock springs”

Ho’oowu’ Heetou’ – Fort Collins, CO / “Where a house is located”

Hoheisiiniicie – Buffalo, WY / “Crazy woman river”

Howohoowu’ – Lander, WY / “Many houses”

Hooxono’oo – Riverton, WY / “On the other side of the river”

Houuneniinoho’oooyoo’ – The Bighorn Mountains / “Crow (tribe) mountain range”

Hoxeeniiniicie – Arkansas River / “Flint River”

Neniikote’eit Neh’eiht – Steamboat Springs, CO / “Where Bushy Head was killed”

Neniisotoyou’u – Longs Peak / “There are two mountains”

Nii3oniiniicie – Sheridan, WY / “Tongue river”

Nii3oniiniicie – Tongue River / “Tongue river”

Niico’ooowu’ – Great Salt Lake / “It is salty”

Niico’ooowu’ – Salt Lake City / “It is salty”

Niineniiniicie – Denver, CO / “Tallow River”

Niineniiniicie – South Platte River / “Tallow River”

Niisonoh’oho’ – Dubois, WY / “Two boys”

Niitokooxeeetiini’ – Laramie, WY / “Where tepee poles are obtained”

Nisiceniicie – Douglas, WY / “Antelope river”

Sosoni’ – Shoshoni, WY / “Shoshoni”

Tebexonoo – Billings, MT / “Saw (tool)”

Tebiinis – Devils Tower / “Broken horn”

Tecenoo – Saratoga, WY / “The door”

Wox Niiinon – Black Hills / “Bears tepee”

Xonouu’oo’ – Thermopolis, WY / “It smokes”

Map: Jordan Engel. As always, the Decolonial Atlas’ original media can be reused under the Decolonial Media License 0.1.


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