Arapaho Lands

How the Lands are Named in Arapaho. Research by the Arapaho Project at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Map by Jordan Engel.

Heeneisih’iinou’u biito’owuu (How the Lands are Named) in Hinono’eitiit (Arapaho). Research from the Arapaho Project at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Map by Jordan Engel.

Hinono’eino (Arapaho) knowledge of the land extends far and wide across the Great Plains, Rocky Mountains, and beyond. This map covers the modern states of Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nebraska, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. A big thanks to Dr. Andrew Cowell and all the folks who have helped with the Arapaho Project at the University of Colorado. More information, and an interactive Arapaho Place Name Map, can be found here: http://www.colorado.edu/csilw/arapahoproject/map/index.html .

List of place names appearing on this map. Hinono’eitiit place name – English place name / “Translation into English”

3ooxone’ – Medicine Bow Mountains / “At the (woman’s stone) hammer”

3ooxone’ Noho’oooyoo’ – Rocky Mountains / “The hammer mountain range”

3iikoneiniicie – Green River, WY / “Skeleton river”

Beesniicie – Yellowstone River / “Big river”

Bei’i’einiicie – Casper, WY / “Shell river”

Bei’i’einiicie – North Platte River / “Shell river”

Benehtiiteen – Fort Hall, ID / “All may enter”

Beniiino’oowu’ – Fort Laramie, WY / “Soldiers house”

Biinohooo – Hardin, MT / “Digging stick”

Ce’i3eeniicie – Powder River / “Powder river”

Heni’eino’oowu’ – Cody, WY / “Long hair’s (Bufflo Bill’s) house”

Heetihco’oo’ – Yellowstone Area / “Where it (water or land) rises up”

Heetko’einoo’ – Estes Park, CO / “Where it is circular”

Heeyotoyoo’ – Pikes Peak / “Long mountain”

Heneeceibooo – Laramie Plains / “Buffalo trail”

Heso’oobooone’ – Rawlins, WY / “At the railroad”

Hii3einoon Niitbii3ihi3i’ Hoh’eni’ – Boulder, CO / “Buffalos where they graze on the mountain”

Hitesiino’oowu’ – Cheyenne, WY / “Cheyenne (tribe) house”

Hiwoxuu Hinii3oon – Chimney Rock / “Elks penis”

Hiwoxuu Hookuhu’ee – Collegiate Range and Mount Massive / “Elks head”

Ho’nookeenooxebine’ – Rock Springs, WY / “At the rock springs”

Ho’oowu’ Heetou’ – Fort Collins, CO / “Where a house is located”

Hoheisiiniicie – Buffalo, WY / “Crazy woman river”

Howohoowu’ – Lander, WY / “Many houses”

Hooxono’oo – Riverton, WY / “On the other side of the river”

Houuneniinoho’oooyoo’ – The Bighorn Mountains / “Crow (tribe) mountain range”

Hoxeeniiniicie – Arkansas River / “Flint River”

Neniikote’eit Neh’eiht – Steamboat Springs, CO / “Where Bushy Head was killed”

Neniisotoyou’u – Longs Peak / “There are two mountains”

Nii3oniiniicie – Sheridan, WY / “Tongue river”

Nii3oniiniicie – Tongue River / “Tongue river”

Niico’ooowu’ – Great Salt Lake / “It is salty”

Niico’ooowu’ – Salt Lake City / “It is salty”

Niineniiniicie – Denver, CO / “Tallow River”

Niineniiniicie – South Platte River / “Tallow River”

Niisonoh’oho’ – Dubois, WY / “Two boys”

Niitokooxeeetiini’ – Laramie, WY / “Where tepee poles are obtained”

Nisiceniicie – Douglas, WY / “Antelope river”

Sosoni’ – Shoshoni, WY / “Shoshoni”

Tebexonoo – Billings, MT / “Saw (tool)”

Tebiinis – Devils Tower / “Broken horn”

Tecenoo – Saratoga, WY / “The door”

Wox Niiinon – Black Hills / “Bears tepee”

Xonouu’oo’ – Thermopolis, WY / “It smokes”

South Asia Without Borders

South Asia Without Borders, by Jordan Engel

South Asia Without Borders, by Jordan Engel

South Asia is home to about a quarter of the world’s population and more than 2,000 ethnic groups. The subcontinent is, perhaps more than any other region, is a land beset by territorial disputes and border conflicts – from Kashmir to Arunachal Pradesh. In this map, we’ve erased the borders which divide people (Indian Punjabis from Pakistani Punjabis, Pashtuns on either side of the Durand Line, Bangladeshi Bengalis from Indian Bengalis), and labelled major places in their native languages.


Agra, India – आगरा (हिन्दी [Hindi])

Ahmedabad, India – અમદાવાદ (ગુજરાતી [Gujarati])

Allahabad, India – इलाहाबाद (हिन्दी [Hindi])

Amritsar, India – ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤਸਰ (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ [Punjabi])

Anamudi (India) – ആനമുടി (മലയാളം [Malayalam])

Asansol, India – আসানসোল (বাংলা [Bengali])

Bengaluru, India – ಬೆಂಗಳೂರು (ಕನ್ನಡ [Kannada])

Bhopal, India – भोपाल (हिन्दी [Hindi])

Bhubaneswar, India – ଭୁବନେଶ୍ୱର (ଓଡ଼ିଆ [Oriya])

Chennai, India – சென்னை (தமிழ் [Tamil])

Chittagong, Bangladesh – চট্টগ্রাম (বাংলা [Bengali])

Coimbatore, India –  கோயம்புத்தூர் (தமிழ் [Tamil])

Colombo, Sri Lanka – කොළඹ (සිංහල [Sinhala])

Dehradun, India – देहरादून (गढ़वळि [Garhwali])

Delhi, India – दिल्ली (हिन्दी [Hindi])

Dhaka, Bangladesh – ঢাকা (বাংলা [Bengali])

Faisalabad, Pakistan – فیصل آباد ([Punjabi] پنجابی )

Gujranwala, Pakistan – گجرانوالہ ([Punjabi] پنجابی )

Guwahati, India – গুৱাহাটী (অসমীয়া [Assamese])

Hyderabad, India – హైదరాబాదు (తెలుగు [Telugu])

Hyderabad, Pakistan – حيدرآباد ([Sindhi] سنڌي)

Indore, India – इंदौर (हिन्दी [Hindi])

Islamabad, Pakistan – اسلام آباد ([Punjabi] پنجابی )

Jabalpur, India – जबलपुर (हिन्दी [Hindi])

Jaipur, India – जयपुर (राजस्थानी [Rajasthani])

Jodhpur, India – जौधपुर (राजस्थानी [Rajasthani])

K2 (Pakistan/China) – کے ٹو‎ ([Balti] بلتی‎)

Kabul, Afghanistan – کابل ([Pashto] پښتو)

Kandahar, Afghanistan – کندهار‎ ([Pashto] پښتو)

Kanpur, India – कानपुर (हिन्दी [Hindi])

Karachi, Pakistan – ڪراچي ([Sindhi] سنڌي)

Kathmandu, Nepal – येँ देय्‌ (नेपाल भाषा [Newari])

Khulna, Bangladesh – খুলনা (বাংলা [Bengali])

Kochi, India – കൊച്ചി (മലയാളം [Malayalam])

Kolkata, India – কলকাতা (বাংলা [Bengali])

Kozhikode, India – കോഴിക്കോട് (മലയാളം [Malayalam])

Lahore, Pakistan – لہور ([Punjabi] پنجابی )

Lhasa, Tibet – ལྷ་ས། (བོད་ཀྱི་སྐད་ཡིག། [Tibetan])

Lucknow, India – लखनऊ (हिन्दी [Hindi])

Ludhiana, India – ਲੁਧਿਆਣਾ (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ [Punjabi])

Madurai, India – மதுரை (தமிழ் [Tamil])

Mandalay, Burma – မန္တလေးမြို့ (မြန်မာဘာသာ [Burmese])

Mangalore, India – ಕುಡ್ಲ (ತುಳು [Tulu])

Mount Everest (Nepal/Tibet) – ཇོ་མོ་གླང་མ (བོད་ཀྱི་སྐད་ཡིག། [Tibetan])

Multan, Pakistan – ملتان ([Punjabi] پنجابی )

Mumbai, India – मुंबई (मराठी [Marathi])

Mysore, India – ಮೈಸೂರು (ಕನ್ನಡ [Kannada])

Nagpur, India – नागपूर (मराठी [Marathi])

Nashik, India – नाशिक (मराठी [Marathi])

Panaji, India – पणजी (कोंकणी [Konkani])

Patna, India – पटना (भोजपुरी [Bihari])

Peshawar, Pakistan – پېښور‎ ([Pashto] پښتو)

Pokhara, Nepal – पोखरा (नेपाली [Nepali])

Pondicherry, Indiia – பாண்டிச்சேரி (தமிழ் [Tamil])

Pune, India – पुणे (मराठी [Marathi])

Quetta, Pakistan – کوټه‎ ([Pashto] پښتو)

Rajkot, India – રાજકોટ (ગુજરાતી [Gujarati])

Rawalpindi, Pakistan – راولپنڈى‎ ([Punjabi] پنجابی )

Srinagar, India/Pakistan – سِری نَگَر (Kashmiri)

Sukkur, Pakistan – سکر ([Sindhi] سنڌي)

Surat, India – સુરત (ગુજરાતી [Gujarati])

Thimphu, Bhutan – ཐིམ་ཕུ་ (རྫོང་ཁ་ [Dzongkha])

Thiruvananthapuram, India – തിരുവനന്തപുരം (മലയാളം [Malayalam])

Vadodara, India – વડોદરા (ગુજરાતી [Gujarati])

Varanasi, India – वाराणसी (हिन्दी [Hindi])

Vijayawada, India – విజయవాడ (తెలుగు [Telugu])

Visakhapatnam, India – విశాఖపట్నం (తెలుగు [Telugu])

Xigazê, Tibet – གཞིས་ཀ་རྩེ་གྲོང (བོད་ཀྱི་སྐད་ཡིག། [Tibetan])

Yangon, Burma – ရန်ကုန် (မြန်မာဘာသာ [Burmese])

Mediterranean Without Borders

Mediterranean without Borders by Sabine Réthoré. Source: http://www.sabine-rethore.net/engl/artistic%20maps/mediterraneanwit.html

Mediterranean without Borders by Sabine Réthoré. Source: http://www.sabine-rethore.net/engl/artistic%20maps/mediterraneanwit.html

From French artist Sabine Réthoré –

My cartography is precise. It’s just my point of view that‘s different. I have orientated my poles from East to West, to follow the sun’s course and to give everyone, once a day, a zenith.

I began setting about tracing the lines, routes, rivers, railroads. I ignored the borders: the only thing that symbolically divides men. I was thus contented with tracing the thousands of lines which link them with the thousands of points or places of exchange: towns, little ones, big ones…

The project has only just begun; we are searching volunteers to transcribe it into all the alphabets used in our region. The map should be printed in even larger quantities.

Source: http://www.sabine-rethore.net/engl/artistic%20maps/mediterraneanwit.html

Micronesian Stick Charts

Micronesian stick charts show wave patterns and currents. The shells represent atolls and islands. Using stick charts (also called rebbelibs, medos, and mattangs) ancient mariners successfully navigated thousands of miles of the South Pacific Ocean without compasses, astrolabes, or other mechanical devices.

Ancient mariners from Majõl (The Marshall Islands) developed “stick charts” to understand the vast Pacific Ocean. The charts aren’t made of sticks. Most stick charts are made of coconut fiber and shells. Placement of the fibers and shells indicate the location of islands, waves, and currents.

Stick charts were not used for navigation in the way we use maps or charts today. In fact, the Marshallese probably did not consult stick charts on their long journeys throughout Micronesia. Navigators memorized the chart before the journey was made.

Charts were highly individualized. Sometimes, a stick chart could only be read by the person who made it! Still, there are some standard features used to interpret ocean features.

The stick charts are the earliest known system of mapping ocean swells in the world. Use of stick charts and navigation by swells apparently ended after World War II, when the Marshallese way of life was radically altered by US occupation and nuclear weapons testing.

Source: http://education.nationalgeographic.com/education/media/micronesian-stick-chart/?ar_a=1

Trackin’ settler colonial erasures in Palestine: Decolonizing Zionist toponymy

“Remember the names of our cities before you came and replaced it. Remember and tell me how am I supposed to miss a nation, living within us.”

Decolonization

by Chandni Desai

Settler colonial societies use national mythologies to erase the genocidal history that lead to a settler nation’s founding. These national mythologies are profoundly racialized and spatialized stories. Sherene Razack (2002) argues that “although the spatial story that is told varies from one time to another, at each stage the story installs Europeans as entitled to the land, a claim that is codified in law” (p. 3). The legal doctrine of terra nullius – empty, uninhabited lands – describes territory that has supposedly never been subject to the sovereignty of any nation. Settler colonists used such laws to politically and materially occupy Indigenous land.

For example, early Zionist settler colonists rendered the land of Palestine as a “land without a people, for people without a land.” Zionist “imaginative geographies” (Said, 1978) constructed Palestine as terra nullius, the empty wilderness, a land that is “bare”, “abandoned”, “naked”, “virgin” and…

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The Great Lakes in Ojibwe V2

great-lakes-in-ojibwe

Nayanno-nibiimaang Gichigamiin (The Great Lakes) in Anishinaabemowin (Ojibwe), by Charles Lippert and Jordan Engel

Nayaano-nibiimaang Gichigamiin means “The Five Freshwater Seas” in Anishinaabemowin. The cultural impact of the Anishinaabe on the region is everywhere, as evidenced by this map.

The toponyms that appear on this map are listed below. They include the Anishinaabemowin name, translation, and the English name.

Aabitibiiwi-zaaga’igan (In-Between Waters Lake): Lake Abitibi (ON / QC)

Aazhawayi’iing (At the Canoe-crossing): Oshawa, ON

Adikokaan (Caribou Grounds): Atikokan, ON

Amikwag-endaad (Beaver Abode): Beaver Islands, MI

Animbiigoo-zaaga’igan (Dog Waters Lake): Lake Nipigon (ON)

Anishinaabewi-gichigami (Anishinaabe’s Sea): Lake Superior (MI / MN / ON / WI)

— ALSO AS Ojibwewi-gichigami (Ojibwa’s Sea): Lake Superior (MI / MN / ON / WI)

Baawitigong (At the Cascades): Sault St. Marie, MI/ON

Baketigweyaang (At the Side-flow): London, ON

Bakeyaabashkiikaang (At where a Muskeg is off to its Side): Hayward, WI

Biidaasige (Shine): Petosky, MI

Biidaaweweng (At where It Is Heard Approaching): Petawawa, ON

Binesii-wiikwedong (At the Thunderbird Bay): Thunder Bay, ON

Boojwiikwed (Horn Bay): Green Bay (MI / WI)

Dakwaanikwaan (Buzz-cut Hair): Ft. Wayne, IN

Eshkwesing (The End): Oakville, ON

Gaa-biskising (At the Turn-around): Kapuskasing, ON

Gaagaagiwinzhi-minitigoong (By the River Island of Hemlocks): Steven’s Point, WI

Gaa-ginwaajiwanaang (At the Place of Long Rapids): Grand Rapids, MI

Gaa-niiyogamaag (Place of the Four Lakes): Madison, WI

Gaa-zhigaagowanzhigokaag (At the Place Abundant with Skunk-grass): Chicago, IL

— ALSO AS Zhigaagong (On the Skunk): Chicago, IL

Gakaabikaang (At the Waterfall): Minneapolis, MN

Gakiiwe-onigamiing (At the Foot Portage): Hancock / Houghton, MI

Gete-oodenaang (At the Old Town): Superior, WI

Gichi-biitoobiigong (At the Great Harbour): Sandusky, OH

Gichigami-ziibi (Sea River): St. Louis River (MN / WI) / St. Marys River (MI / ON) / St. Claire River River (MI / ON) / Niagara River (NY / ON) / St. Lawrence River (NY / ON / QC)

Gichi-namebini-ziibiing (At the Big Sucker River): Marquette, MI

Gichi-nibiinsing-zaaga’igan (Big Little-Waters Lake): Lake Nippising (ON)

Gichi-wiikwedong (At the Big Bay): Grand Traverse Bay (MI)

Gichi-ziibi (Big River): Ottawa River (ON / QC)

Ginoogamaa-zaaga’iganiing (At the Long Lake): Longlac, ON

Gitigaani-ziibiing (At the Garden River): Maniwaki, QC

Gojijiing (At the Inlets): Fort Frances, ON / International Falls, MN

Ininwewi-gichigami (Illinios’ Sea): Lake Michigan (IL / IN / MI / WI)

— ALSO AS Mishii’igan (Grand Lake): Lake Michigan (IL / IN / MI / WI)

— ALSO AS Mishigami (Great Lake): Lake Michigan (IL / IN / MI / WI)

Maadaawaang (At the Confluence): Mattawa, ON

Manidoowazh (Spirit Cave): Manitouwadge, ON

Miinoong (Blueberrying): Isle Royale, MI

Minjikaning (At the Fence): Orillia, ON

Minwakiing (At Milwaukee): Milwaukee, WI

— ALSO AS Mino-akiing (At the Good Land): Milwaukee, WI

Mishibikwadinaang (At the Grand Hill): Michipicoten, ON

Mishibikwadin-minis (Grand Hill Island): Michipicoten Island, ON

Misi-zaaga’igan (Grand Lake): Mille Lacs Lake (MN)

Misi-ziibi (Great River): Mississippi River (MN / WI / IA / IL / MO / KY / TN / AR / MS / LA)

Mooniyaang (At Montréal): Montréal, QC

Naadawekwe-neyaashiing (At the Iroquois Woman’s Point): St. Ignace, MI

Naadowewi-gichigami (Iroqois’ Sea): Lake Huron (MI / ON)

— ALSO AS Odaawaawi-gichigami (Odawa’s Sea): Lake Huron (MI / ON)

— ALSO AS Gichi-aazhoogami-gichigami (Great Crosswaters Sea): Lake Huron (MI / ON)

Name-wiikwedong (At the Sturgeon Bay): Owen Sound, ON

Niigani-gichigami (Leading Sea): Lake Ontario (NY / ON)

— ALSO AS Gichi-zaaga’igan (Big Lake): Lake Ontario (NY / ON)

Niswaakamog (The Three Trails): Sudbury, ON

Odaawaa (Odawa): Ottawa, ON

Odaawaa-minis (Odawa Island): Manitoulin Island, ON

Onigamiinsing (At the Little Portage): Duluth, MN

Opwaaganasiniing (At the Pipe-stone): Nipigon / Red Rock, ON

Waabishkiigoo-gichigami (Neutral’s Sea): Lake Erie (MI / NY / OH / ON / PA)

— ALSO AS Aanikegamaa-gichigami (Chain of Lakes Sea): Lake Erie (MI / NY / OH / ON / PA)

Waaninaawangaag (At the Sandy Depression): Sioux Lookout, ON

Waasekaasing (The Brightly Shining): Parry Sound, ON

Waaseyaagami-wiikwed (Shining Waters Bay): Georgian Bay (ON)

Waawiyaataan (Curved Shores): Lake St. Claire (MI / ON)

Waawiyaataanong (At the Curved Shores): Detroit, MI

Wayaa-gonaatigweyaa-ziibiing (At the Clearwater-flowing River): Eau Claire, WI

Wayaanag-gakaabikaawang (At the Curved Waterfalls): Niagara Falls (NY / ON)

Wewebijiwang (At the Intermittent Current): Little Current, ON

Wiikwe-wayekwaa-gichigami (Bay at the Far end of the Sea): Fond du Lac Bay (MN / WI)

Wiinibiigoo-zaaga’igan (Murky Waters Lake): Lake Winnebago (WI)

Zaagiinaad-wiikwed (Of the Outlet Bay): Saginaw Bay (MI)

Zaagiinaang (At the Outlet): Saginaw, MI

Zhooniyaang-zaaga’igan (Of the Silver Lake): Lake Simcoe (ON)

***A note on the compass – The Anishinaabe traditionally orient themselves to the East, which is why East appears at the top of this map. Because the standard orientation is different in European and Anishinaabe cultures, we’ve included the English word “North” and the Anishinaabemowin word “Waabang,” meaning East, on the compass. The compass rose itself is in the form of a medicine wheel, an indigenous symbol used across the continent to denote the four directions.