These maps depict an mtDNA-based simulation of modern human expansion into Europe beginning 1,600 generations ago, with the area of Europe already inhabited by Neanderthals shown in light gray, and an origin of modern human expansion indicated by a black arrow (Diagram A). Diagrams B through F show the progression of the wave of advance of modern humans (dark gray) into Europe at different times before present. The black band at the front of the expansion wave represents the restricted zone of cohabitation between modern humans and Neanderthals.
The logical deduction from these maps is that the extinction of Neanderthals was directly related to the expansion of modern humans into their lands. And so began a long history of colonization by our species.